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?What is Cloud Computing?
In recent years the computer has been involved in a major change, moving to a model of consumer services, offering a technology under the scheme of pay-on-demand. In this new scheme are being developed millions of applications to which users can access via the Internet and applications to run on individual machines. Cloud computing is an extension of the paradigm in which applications are exposed as services on the internet which anyone with permission can consume.

The term cloud, or cloud, has been used metaphorically in history to connote an infrastructure through which users can access applications from anywhere in the world demand, which more commonly know as the Internet. Many engineering diagrams showing the abstract cloud as an infrastructure in which information flows from one place to another regardless of what exists in the middle. Although there is a close relationship between this metaphor well known to all and the true meaning of the term cloud computing is important to emphasize precise definition.

The term Cloud involves two key concepts: Abstraction and virtualization. The abstraction corresponds to forget the details of the implementation by users and developers, taking this concept from an approach where applications run on a physical machine that is not specified, the data are stored in unknown locations, management system is held by a third and finally the users have over this infrastructure from anywhere with network access. As virtualization refers to the system's ability to create independent systems that appear to users through mechanisms to share and assign periods to use the resources that each unit needs.

Cloud computing is the abstraction of the notion of sharing physical resources and present them to the end user as independent resources through virtualization. When we talk about Cloud Computing yourselves reference to all applications and services running on a distributed network using virtualized resources that can be accessed through Internet protocols and standards common communication networks. The important thing is that as users we forget the physical infrastructure behind and assume that the resources that we have in the cloud are limitless.

To enter a more detailed description we have two models that define Cloud Computing: from the place where it is located and how how to manage the infrastructure (Display Model) and from the type of services that can be accessed on the platform (Service Model). From these two models is that NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) gives a formal definition and can be summarized in the following figure, considering that this definition is moving toward an interaction of components based on standards such as SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) so in the future include new components.
Deployment Model
According to NIST deployment model makes a difference and defines the purpose of the cloud and where it is located. A public cloud refers to an infrastructure that is available for public use, unlike private clouds, where the infrastructure is operated for the exclusive use of an organization. There are also Community clouds that have been created and organized to serve a specific purpose or a common function. Finally, hybrid clouds clouds combine several private, public and community, where each maintains its own characteristics but work together as a single unit.
Services model
There are different models of services described as XaaS (<SOMETHING> as <something> Services or as a service). The most common are:
Infrastructure as a Service (LAAS)
  Within this model of service, the service provider offers each client a virtual computing infrastructure with standard features that can be chosen from a variety of options offered and the customer selected according to their needs. The provider is responsible for all operations of the hosting of virtual environments for users and the operations of the real infrastructure maintenance, while users retain full control and are responsible for all operations of deployment of its applications and settings .
In what we consider infrastructure virtualization platforms are virtual machines that include the hardware of a computer, typically set horizontal grid for massive scalability, access to high speed networks, including routers, firewalls, load balancers and related devices; Internet connectivity, typically about 192 OC backbones, and virtual storage environments. All these services are charged on demand and are subject to some level agreements provide that guarantee a minimum service availability and reliability for all services obtained.
Platform as a Service (PaaS)
Cloud computing platforms has encapsulated the creation and implementation of web applications, what is known as Platform as a Service. Thus, developers have the tools to focus on the design of new applications that can be accessed from anywhere with Internet access, apart from operations related to configuring and maintaining the infrastructure which will be supported application, operating system and even the installation and configuration of development tools. The developer or the company are only responsible for your own application.  
PaaS offers a new model for application development much cheaper, faster and with greater assurance of success than the old model of development of specific applications for each organization. Companies providing these services have facilities for application design through workflows and tools for the development cycle, testing, deployment and hosting, and virtual offices, collaborative teams, database integration, security, scalability , state handling, control panels and many other facilities that own infrastructure can hardly ever have.

Key features of PaaS find that it is based entirely on web standards such as HTML and JavaScript and is designed with a multitenant architecture that supports that guarantees the use of an application by many independent users and including features that support concurrency management, scalability and fault tolerance. Another essential feature is its integration with web services and databases using protocols SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) that enables the creation of combinations of web services, reuse of functionality and access to private services.
SaaS is a model of distribution of applications that are hosted by the vendor and distributed to customers through a network like the Internet and usually using web browsers, unlike the traditional model where each user buy the application and was responsible installation in each of the machines where it was used. Many SaaS applications are focused on providing functionality to business customers at low prices, offering the same benefits of traditional software without the complexity associated with the installation, administration, support and initial cost it represents. Thus, the SaaS customer is only responsible to use the software on a prepaid contract, hence down is the responsibility of the seller.

The architecture of these applications is also based on sharing a single application with multiple clients, thus spreading the license fee equitably among all its use. Thus, a single application is used by multiple clients, each separated from the other through logical contexts. The most common applications are ERP, CRM, SCM and other wide range of vertical business packages. This has both large corporations and small businesses gain access to this kind of tools, making them more competitive by focusing its efforts on the business domain.
Features of Cloud Computing
The model of computing in the cloud was characterized by NIST to have three levels of services known as SPI (SaaS, IaaS and IAAD) and four types of clouds (public, private, community and hybrid), as described in the previous section. Additionally, NIST awarded five essential characteristics that any service cloud computing should offer its users (Sosinsky, 2011):
Self-demand (on-demand self-service): Any user of the cloud can ter access to computing resources when you need it and without any interaction with the staff of the cloud, automatically and unilaterally.
Full access to the network (network acces Broad): All remedies available in the cloud, and the applications that the user is implemented should have full access through the network using standard methods, so as to allow access platform-independent user customers. This ensures that any user, with any operating system or device (computers, mobile phones, PDAs, etc..) Have access to services.
Grouping and distribution of resources (Resource pooling): The cloud provider should create resources that are grouped together but can be distributed among many users, which is known as multi-use support. Thus, the physical and virtual systems to be dynamically distributed according to the current needs of users and giving, by fact, the abstraction of the actual location of the resources consumed by each customer.
Rapid elasticity (Rapid elasticity): This feature indicates that resources should be granted quickly and elastic, as customer needs at the time this request. The added resources can be given in two ways: horizontally (Expanding the number of physical resources, ie, adding more computers) or vertically (changing existing resources by others with higher capacities). However, it is important to note that the resources that the client can access from their point of view, are unlimited.
Measurement of service (Measured service): The last feature indicates that the use of any resources should be measured, audited and reported to the customer based on a measurement system previously agreed between supplier and user. In this way the user will generate economic positions as the disk space used, number of transactions, processing units, time of use, etc..
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